Exceptions may be granted in the form of Article II exceptions. Members could apply for such exemptions before the agreement came into force. New derogations may only be granted to new members at the time of accession or, in the case of current members, by a derogation under Article IX:3 of the WTO agreement. All exceptions are subject to review; they should not, in principle, last more than 10 years. In addition, the GATS allows groups of members to enter into economic integration agreements or to mutually recognize regulatory standards, certificates and others when certain conditions are met. Some activist groups believe that GATS risks undermining the ability and authority of governments to regulate commercial activities within their own borders, which will lead to the flight of power from the commercial interests of citizens. In 2003, the GATSwatch network published a critical opinion, supported by more than 500 organizations in 60 countries.  At the same time, countries are not required to enter into international agreements such as the GATS. For countries that like to attract trade and investment, GATS adds a degree of transparency and legal predictability.
Legal barriers to trade in services may have legitimate political reasons, but they can also be an effective instrument for large-scale corruption.  No. The results of the sectoral negotiations are specific new commitments and/or exemptions for the sector concerned. They are therefore not legally independent of other sectoral obligations and are not different agreements from the GATS. New obligations and exemptions from the MFN were included in existing lists and exception lists in separate GATS protocols. The GATS, like all other Uruguay Round agreements, is an annex to the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. It therefore does not have its own signing and ratification process, but will come into force at the same time as the WTO agreement and all other annexes. There is no opt-out of the GATS: those who want to take advantage of the other elements of the Uruguay cycle must also respect the GATS. On 15 April 1994, at the ministerial meeting in Marrakech, ministers from more than 100 countries signed the final act of Uruguay`s multilateral trade round. This is the end of the eighth round of GATT trade negotiations, which began in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in September 1986. As part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement, the package includes agreements on topics as varied as agriculture, textiles, intellectual property and trade-related investment measures. And for the first time, the parties have established global rules on trade in services through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).